Introduction about the country

This territory has undergone successive folds overlapping during the different geological eras and is subsequently cut by the erosion of large rivers cutting its massifs or by the climate of sculpting the sugar loaves that you will see in Halong Bay or in well Other regions ..

But the most important phenomenon for its economy and its culture is probably the accumulation of erosion lands in two vast deltas. That of the Red River can be considered as the cradle of viet culture.

Deltas, plains, mountains and high plateaus host populations with very different origins, languages, traditions and customs, offering them often grandiose frames, always astonishing. Discovering will show you several Vietnams.

It is a country of land and water, of a land that flows in the rainy season, that is flooded to cultivate it. From rivers and their deltas to mythical names with dimensions evoking the immensity, from mountain torrents to indomitable rapids. Fishy and fertilizing water. So much so that homeland, nation, land of nourishment is also called "land and water"

A country of contrasts between the exuberance of a tropical nature and the scheduling of a countryside shaped by generations of peasants. In the plains and deltas the original nature has given place to a landscape squared by bunds.

Nature areas are still numerous, with their astonishing populations in our time, in landscapes of rice terraces or in the jungle. Two-thirds of Vietnam are mountains and highlands, where some fifty ethnic groups, both in the Tibeto-Burmese, Thai, Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian origins, offer images of past centuries through their customs and daily life .

This diversity of populations is a key element of Vietnamese cultural heritage.




Socialist Republic of Vietnam

Area: 331,114 km

Population: 92,7 million inhabitants

Capital: Hanoi

Languages: Vietnamese, Chinese, dialects of the mountain ethnic groups

Political system: single party (Vietnamese Communist Party, VVC)

President: Trần Đại Quang

Prime Minister: Nguyễn Xuân Phúc

Currency: dong (VND)


Arts


Many artistic expressions inherited from China, painting, drawing, sculpture, calligraphy, ceramics.

Kinh music, too, has undergone Cham influence, in its melodies and instruments. Each ethnic group has its original instruments and harmonies.

There are several forms of theater, this one is often sung as the "cai luong" of the South, or the "Hat Boi" of the North.

One of the great originalities is also the theater of puppets on the water.

The dances are very varied, they often symbolize the main agricultural events in all the ethnic groups.

The cham sculpture, of which you can see examples at the Parmentier Museum in Da Nang or in the ruins of My Son.


Religions and philosophies

In any Vietnamese house you will see an altar supporting the picture of an elder surrounded by sticks of incense and food offered. It is the ancestor of the family to whom the eldest son has to ensure worship.

This custom of ancestor worship is the dominant feature of the Vietnamese religiosity. But they have extended this practice to the heroes and the protective or providential characters collectively in the communal "Dinh" and "Den" or the letters and the knowledge in the "Van Mieu" or temples of Literature. They honor Buddha or Quan An in the Pagodas of the Mahayana Rite (only the Khmer Krom of the Mekong Delta practice Theravada Buddhism). Communities of Chinese origin practice Taoism.

Society is still managed according to a Confucian pattern inherited from the ten centuries of Chinese occupation.

The essential characteristic is the more or less distinct practice of these three religions-philosophies (one often finds characters of Taoism in the Buddhist pagodas).

The extreme of this religiosity is attained in the Cao Dai cult, a kind of kaleidoscopic religion that brings together almost all the mythological characters of the great religions and philosophies of the East and the West in a multicolored Disney setting.

Vietnam is also the second Catholic country in Asia after the Philippines.



Peoples and ethnic groups

Kinhs, Khmers, Cham, Ede, Roglai, Hre, Dedang, Bahnars, Mnongs, Giarais, Mas, Stieng, Romams, Gie Trings, Katus, Kohos, Bru Van Kieus, Muongs, Tays , Thais, Nungs, Zays, Lu, Laos, Sanchis, Hmong, Yaos, Tsa Komes, Hoas, Has, Khmer Kroms, in all 54 ethnic groups belonging to several ethno-linguistic groups:

- Viet-Muong

- Thai-Khadar

- Malayo-Polynesian

- Mon-Khmer

- Hmong-Yao

- Sino-Tibetan


The country has given itself several names according to the periods

- At the Lake
- Giao Chi Cattigara in the geography of Ptolemy
- Dai Nam South Eminent
- Dai Viet Separated (from China) Eminent
- Nam Viet Separated Southern
- An Nam Name given by the Chinese meaning South pacified

Religions and philosophies
Tropical and subtropical. The country is exposed to monsoons every year between the end of June and the beginning of November. The humidity is 84% ​​on average with about 223 centimeters of rain each year.

Vietnam Natural Resources
Forests and forest lands cover a large part of the territory. National reserves are protected by the State and have sustainable development plans for ecological tourism. These precious forests are distributed in several localities throughout the country: Ba Vi (Ha Tay), Cat Ba (Hai Phong), Cuc Phuong (Ninh Binh), Bach Ma (Hue), Cat Tien (Dong Nai), Con Dao. ..

Vietnam is a country with mineral resources. Its basement contains valuable deposits of tin, zinc, silver, gold, antimony, precious stones, and coal. Its continental shelf is rich in oil and natural gas.

Sources of mineral water are very abundant: Quang Hanh (Quang Ninh), Hoi Van (Binh Dinh), Vinh Hao (Binh Thuan), Duc My (Nha Trang), Kim Boi (Hoa Binh) ...

Vietnam Topography
The hills and mountains represent three-quarters of the territory of Vietnam. There are four main mountain regions.

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